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modulo(gcc 編譯優化做了哪些事求解答

用過gcc的都應該知道編譯時候的-O選項吧modulo。它就是負責編譯優化。下面列出它的說明: -O -O1 Optimize. Optimizing compilation takes somewhat more time, and a lot more memory for a large function. With -O, the compiler tries to reduce code size and execution time, without performing any optimizations that take a great deal of compilation time. -O turns on the following optimization flags: -fdefer-pop -fdelayed-branch -fguess-branch-probability -fcprop-registers -floop-optimize -fif-conversion -fif-conver- sion2 -ftree-ccp -ftree-dce -ftree-dominator-opts -ftree-dse -ftree-ter -ftree-lrs -ftree-sra -ftree-copyrename -ftree-fre -ftree-ch -funit-at-a-time -fmerge-constants -O also turns on -fomit-frame-pointer on machines where doing so does not interfere with debugging. -O doesn’t turn on -ftree-sra for the Ada compiler. This option must be explicitly speci- fied on the command line to be enabled for the Ada compiler. -O2 Optimize even more. GCC performs nearly all supported optimizations that do not involve a space-speed tradeoff. The compiler does not perform loop unrolling or function inlining when you specify -O2. As compared to -O, this option increases both compilation time and the performance of the generated code. -O2 turns on all optimization flags specified by -O. It also turns on the following opti- mization flags: -fthread-jumps -fcrossjumping -foptimize-sibling-calls -fcse-follow-jumps -fcse-skip-blocks -fgcse -fgcse-lm -fexpensive-optimizations -fstrength-reduce -fre- run-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -fcaller-saves -fpeephole2 -fschedule-insns -fsched- ule-insns2 -fsched-interblock -fsched-spec -fregmove -fstrict-aliasing -fdelete-null-pointer-checks -freorder-blocks -freorder-functions -falign-functions -falign-jumps -falign-loops -falign-labels -ftree-vrp -ftree-pre Please note the warning under -fgcse about invoking -O2 on programs that use computed gotos. -O3 Optimize yet more. -O3 turns on all optimizations specified by -O2 and also turns on the -finline-functions, -funswitch-loops and -fgcse-after-reload options. -O0 Do not optimize. This is the default. -Os Optimize for size. -Os enables all -O2 optimizations that do not typically increase code size. It also performs further optimizations designed to reduce code size. -Os disables the following optimization flags: -falign-functions -falign-jumps -falign-loops -falign-labels -freorder-blocks -freorder-blocks-and-partition -fprefetch-loop-arrays -ftree-vect-loop-version If you use multiple -O options, with or without level numbers, the last such option is the one that is effective. Options of the form -fflag specify machine-independent flags. Most flags have both positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo would be -fno-foo. In the table below, only one of the forms is listed---the one you typically will use. You can figure out the other form by either removing no- or adding it. The following options control specific optimizations. They are either activated by -O options or are related to ones that are. You can use the following flags in the rare cases when "fine-tuning" of optimizations to be performed is desired. -fno-default-inline Do not make member functions inline by default merely because they are defined inside the class scope (C only). Otherwise, when you specify -O, member functions defined inside class scope are compiled inline by default; i.e., you don’t need to add inline in front of the member function name. -fno-defer-pop Always pop the arguments to each function call as soon as that function returns. For machines which must pop arguments after a function call, the compiler normally lets argu- ments accumulate on the stack for several function calls and pops them all at once. Disabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os. -fforce-mem Force memory operands to be copied into registers before doing arithmetic on them. This produces better code by making all memory references potential common subexpressions. When they are not common subexpressions, instruction combination should eliminate the separate register-load. This option is now a nop and will be removed in 4.2. -fforce-addr Force memory address constants to be copied into registers before doing arithmetic on them. -fomit-frame-pointer Don’t keep the frame pointer in a register for functions that don’t need one. This avoids the instructions to save, set up and restore frame pointers; it also makes an extra regis- ter available in many functions. It also makes debugging impossible on some machines. On some machines, such as the VAX, this flag has no effect, because the standard calling sequence automatically handles the frame pointer and nothing is saved by pretending it doesn’t exist. The machine-description macro "FRAME_POINTER_REQUIRED" controls whether a target machine supports this flag. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os. -foptimize-sibling-calls Optimize sibling and tail recursive calls. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fno-inline Don’t pay attention to the "inline" keyword. Normally this option is used to keep the com- piler from expanding any functions inline. Note that if you are not optimizing, no func- tions can be expanded inline. -finline-functions Integrate all simple functions into their callers. The compiler heuristically decides which functions are simple enough to be worth integrating in this way. If all calls to a given function are integrated, and the function is declared "static", then the function is normally not output as assembler code in its own right. Enabled at level -O3. -finline-functions-called-once Consider all "static" functions called once for inlining into their caller even if they are not marked "inline". If a call to a given function is integrated, then the function is not output as assembler code in its own right. Enabled if -funit-at-a-time is enabled. -fearly-inlining Inline functions marked by "always_inline" and functions whose body seems smaller than the function call overhead early before doing -fprofile-generate instrumentation and real inlining pass. Doing so makes profiling significantly cheaper and usually inlining faster on programs having large chains of nested wrapper functions. Enabled by default. -finline-limit=n By default, GCC limits the size of functions that can be inlined. This flag allows the control of this limit for functions that are explicitly marked as inline (i.e., marked with the inline keyword or defined within the class definition in c ). n is the size of func- tions that can be inlined in number of pseudo instructions (not counting parameter han- dling). The default value of n is 600. Increasing this value can result in more inlined code at the cost of compilation time and memory consumption. Decreasing usually makes the compilation faster and less code will be inlined (which presumably means slower programs). This option is particularly useful for programs that use inlining heavily such as those based on recursive templates with C . Inlining is actually controlled by a number of parameters, which may be specified individu- ally by using --param name=value. The -finline-limit=n option sets some of these parame- ters as follows: max-inline-insns-single is set to I<n>/2. max-inline-insns-auto is set to I<n>/2. min-inline-insns is set to 130 or I<n>/4, whichever is smaller. max-inline-insns-rtl is set to I<n>. See below for a documentation of the individual parameters controlling inlining. Note: pseudo instruction represents, in this particular context, an abstract measurement of function’s size. In no way does it represent a count of assembly instructions and as such its exact meaning might change from one release to an another. -fkeep-inline-functions In C, emit "static" functions that are declared "inline" into the object file, even if the function has been inlined into all of its callers. This switch does not affect functions using the "extern inline" extension in GNU C. In C , emit any and all inline functions into the object file. -fkeep-static-consts Emit variables declared "static const" when optimization isn’t turned on, even if the vari- ables aren’t referenced. GCC enables this option by default. If you want to force the compiler to check if the variable was referenced, regardless of whether or not optimization is turned on, use the -fno-keep-static-consts option. -fmerge-constants Attempt to merge identical constants (string constants and floating point constants) across compilation units. This option is the default for optimized compilation if the assembler and linker support it. Use -fno-merge-constants to inhibit this behavior. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os. -fmerge-all-constants Attempt to merge identical constants and identical variables. This option implies -fmerge-constants. In addition to -fmerge-constants this considers e.g. even constant initialized arrays or initialized constant variables with integral or floating point types. Languages like C or C require each non-automatic variable to have distinct location, so using this option will result in non-conforming behavior. -fmodulo-sched Perform swing modulo scheduling immediately before the first scheduling pass. This pass looks at innermost loops and reorders their instructions by overlapping different itera- tions. -fno-branch-count-reg Do not use "decrement and branch" instructions on a count register, but instead generate a sequence of instructions that decrement a register, compare it against zero, then branch based upon the result. This option is only meaningful on architectures that support such instructions, which include x86, PowerPC, IA-64 and S/390. The default is -fbranch-count-reg, enabled when -fstrength-reduce is enabled. -fno-function-cse Do not put function addresses in registers; make each instruction that calls a constant function contain the function’s address explicitly. This option results in less efficient code, but some strange hacks that alter the assembler output may be confused by the optimizations performed when this option is not used. The default is -ffunction-cse -fno-zero-initialized-in-bss If the target supports a BSS section, GCC by default puts variables that are initialized to zero into BSS. This can save space in the resulting code. This option turns off this behavior because some programs explicitly rely on variables going to the data section. E.g., so that the resulting executable can find the beginning of that section and/or make assumptions based on that. The default is -fzero-initialized-in-bss. -fmudflap -fmudflapth -fmudflapir For front-ends that support it (C and C ), instrument all risky pointer/array dereferenc- ing operations, some standard library string/heap functions, and some other associated con- structs with range/validity tests. Modules so instrumented should be immune to buffer overflows, invalid heap use, and some other classes of C/C programming errors. The instrumentation relies on a separate runtime library (libmudflap), which will be linked into a program if -fmudflap is given at link time. Run-time behavior of the instrumented program is controlled by the MUDFLAP_OPTIONS environment variable. See "env MUD- FLAP_OPTIONS=-help a.out" for its options. Use -fmudflapth instead of -fmudflap to compile and to link if your program is multi-threaded. Use -fmudflapir, in addition to -fmudflap or -fmudflapth, if instrumenta- tion should ignore pointer reads. This produces less instrumentation (and therefore faster execution) and still provides some protection against outright memory corrupting writes, but allows erroneously read data to propagate within a program. -fstrength-reduce Perform the optimizations of loop strength reduction and elimination of iteration vari- ables. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fthread-jumps Perform optimizations where we check to see if a jump branches to a location where another comparison subsumed by the first is found. If so, the first branch is redirected to either the destination of the second branch or a point immediately following it, depending on whether the condition is known to be true or false. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fcse-follow-jumps In common subexpression elimination, scan through jump instructions when the target of the jump is not reached by any other path. For example, when CSE encounters an "if" statement with an "else" clause, CSE will follow the jump when the condition tested is false. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fcse-skip-blocks This is similar to -fcse-follow-jumps, but causes CSE to follow jumps which conditionally skip over blocks. When CSE encounters a simple "if" statement with no else clause, -fcse-skip-blocks causes CSE to follow the jump around the body of the "if". Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -frerun-cse-after-loop Re-run common subexpression elimination after loop optimizations has been performed. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -frerun-loop-opt Run the loop optimizer twice. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fgcse Perform a global common subexpression elimination pass. This pass also performs global constant and copy propagation. Note: When compiling a program using computed gotos, a GCC extension, you may get better runtime performance if you disable the global common subexpression elimination pass by adding -fno-gcse to the command line. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fgcse-lm When -fgcse-lm is enabled, global common subexpression elimination will attempt to move loads which are only killed by stores into themselves. This allows a loop containing a load/store sequence to be changed to a load outside the loop, and a copy/store within the loop. Enabled by default when gcse is enabled. -fgcse-sm When -fgcse-sm is enabled, a store motion pass is run after global common subexpression elimination. This pass will attempt to move stores out of loops. When used in conjunction with -fgcse-lm, loops containing a load/store sequence can be changed to a load before the loop and a store after the loop. Not enabled at any optimization level. -fgcse-las When -fgcse-las is enabled, the global common subexpression elimination pass eliminates redundant loads that come after stores to the same memory location (both partial and full redundancies). Not enabled at any optimization level. -fgcse-after-reload When -fgcse-after-reload is enabled, a redundant load elimination pass is performed after reload. The purpose of this pass is to cleanup redundant spilling. -floop-optimize Perform loop optimizations: move constant expressions out of loops, simplify exit test con- ditions and optionally do strength-reduction as well. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os. -floop-optimize2 Perform loop optimizations using the new loop optimizer. The optimizations (loop unrolling, peeling and unswitching, loop invariant motion) are enabled by separate flags. -funsafe-loop-optimizations If given, the loop optimizer will assume that loop indices do not overflow, and that the loops with nontrivial exit condition are not infinite. This enables a wider range of loop optimizations even if the loop optimizer itself cannot prove that these assumptions are valid. Using -Wunsafe-loop-optimizations, the compiler will warn you if it finds this kind of loop. -fcrossjumping Perform cross-jumping transformation. This transformation unifies equivalent code and save code size. The resulting code may or may not perform better than without cross-jumping. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fif-conversion Attempt to transform conditional jumps into branch-less equivalents. This include use of conditional moves, min, max, set flags and abs instructions, and some tricks doable by standard arithmetics. The use of conditional execution on chips where it is available is controlled by "if-conversion2". Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os. -fif-conversion2 Use conditional execution (where available) to transform conditional jumps into branch-less equivalents. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os. -fdelete-null-pointer-checks Use global dataflow analysis to identify and eliminate useless checks for null pointers. The compiler assumes that dereferencing a null pointer would have halted the program. If a pointer is checked after it has already been dereferenced, it cannot be null. In some environments, this assumption is not true, and programs can safely dereference null pointers. Use -fno-delete-null-pointer-checks to disable this optimization for programs which depend on that behavior. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fexpensive-optimizations Perform a number of minor optimizations that are relatively expensive. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -foptimize-register-move -fregmove Attempt to reassign register numbers in move instructions and as operands of other simple instructions in order to maximize the amount of register tying. This is especially helpful on machines with two-operand instructions. Note -fregmove and -foptimize-register-move are the same optimization. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fdelayed-branch If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instructions to exploit instruction slots available after delayed branch instructions. Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os. -fschedule-insns If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instructions to eliminate execution stalls due to required data being unavailable. This helps machines that have slow floating point or memory load instructions by allowing other instructions to be issued until the result of the load or floating point instruction is required. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fschedule-insns2 Similar to -fschedule-insns, but requests an additional pass of instruction scheduling after register allocation has been done. This is especially useful on machines with a rel- atively small number of registers and where memory load instructions take more than one cycle. Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os. -fno-sched-interblock Don’t schedule instructions across basic blocks. This is normally enabled by default when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher. -fno-sched-spec Don’t allow speculative motion of non-load instructions. This is normally enabled by default when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher. -fsched-spec-load Allow speculative motion of some load instructions. This only makes sense when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher. -fsched-spec-load-dangerous Allow speculative motion of more load instructions. This only makes sense when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher. -fsched-stalled-insns -fsched-stalled-insns=n Define how many insns (if any) can be moved prematurely from the queue of stalled insns into the ready list, during the second scheduling pass. -fno-fsched-stalled-insns and -fsched-stalled-insns=0 are equivalent and mean that no insns will be moved prematurely. If n is unspecified then there is no limit on how many queued insns can be moved prema- turely. -fsched-stalled-insns-dep -fsched-stalled-insns-dep=n Define how many insn groups (cycles) will be examined for a dependency on a stalled insn that is candidate for premature removal from the queue of stalled insns. This has an effect only during the second scheduling pass, and only if -fsched-stalled-insns is used and its value is not zero. -fno-sched-stalled-insns-dep is equivalent to -fsched-stalled-insns-dep=0. -fsched-stalled-insns-dep without a value is equivalent to -fsched-stalled-insns-dep=1. -fsched2-use-superblocks When scheduling after register allocation, do use superblock scheduling algorithm. Superblock scheduling allows motion across basic block boundaries resulting on faster schedules. This option is experimental, as not all machine descriptions used by GCC model the CPU closely enough to avoid unreliable results from the algorithm. This only makes sense when scheduling after register